What are kidney stones?

Kidney stones or renal calculi, are solid masses made of crystals. Kidney stones usually originate in your kidneys. However, they can develop anywhere along your urinary tract, which consists of these parts:

  • kidneys
  • ureters
  • bladder
  • urethra

Kidney stones are one of the most painful medical conditions. The causes of kidney stones vary according to the type of stone.

Types of kidney stones

Not all kidney stones are made up of the same crystals. The different types of kidney stones include:

Calcium

Calcium stones are the most common. They’re often made of calcium oxalate (though they can consist of calcium phosphate or maleate). Eating fewer oxalate-rich foods can reduce your risk of developing this type of stone. High-oxalate foods include:

  • potato chips
  • peanuts
  • chocolate
  • beets
  • spinach

However, even though some kidney stones are made of calcium, getting enough calcium in your diet can prevent stones from forming.

Uric acid

This type of kidney stone is more common in men than in women. They can occur in people with gout or those going through chemotherapy.

This type of stone develops when urine is too acidic. A diet rich in purines can increase urine’s acidic level. Purine is a colorless substance in animal proteins, such as fish, shellfish, and meats.

Struvite

This type of stone is found mostly in women with urinary tract infections (UTIs). These stones can be large and cause urinary obstruction. They result from a kidney infection. Treating an underlying infection can prevent the development of struvite stones.

Cystine

Cystine stones are rare. They occur in both men and women who have the genetic disorder cystinuria. With this type of stone, cystine — an acid that occurs naturally in the body — leaks from the kidneys into the urine.

Risk factors for kidney stones

The greatest risk factor for kidney stones is making less than 1 liter of urine per day. This is why kidney stones are common in premature infants who have kidney problems. However, kidney stones are most likely to occur in people between the ages of 20 and 50.

Sex also plays a role. More men than women develop kidney stones, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).

A history of kidney stones can increase your risk. So does a family history of kidney stones.

Other risk factors include:

  • dehydration
  • obesity
  • a diet with high levels of protein, salt, or glucose
  • hyperparathyroid condition
  • gastric bypass surgery
  • inflammatory bowel diseases that increase calcium absorption
  • taking medications such as triamterene diuretics, antiseizure drugs, and calcium-based antacids

Recognizing the symptoms and signs of a kidney stone

Kidney stones are known to cause severe pain. Symptoms of kidney stones may not occur until the stone begins to move down the ureters. This severe pain is called renal colic. You may have pain on one side of your back or abdomen.

In men, pain may radiate to the groin area. The pain of renal colic comes and goes, but can be intense. People with renal colic tend to be restless.

Other symptoms of kidney stones can include:

  • blood in the urine (red, pink, or brown urine)
  • vomiting
  • nausea
  • discolored or foul-smelling urine
  • chills
  • fever
  • frequent need to urinate
  • urinating small amounts of urine

In the case of a small kidney stone, you may not have any pain or symptoms as the stone passes through your urinary tract.

Why kidney stones can be a problem

Stones don’t always stay in the kidney. Sometimes they pass from the kidney into the ureters. Ureters are small and delicate, and the stones may be too large to pass smoothly down the ureter to the bladder.

Passage of stones down the ureter can cause spasms and irritation of the ureters. This causes blood to appear in the urine.

Sometimes stones block the flow of urine. This is called a urinary obstruction. Urinary obstructions can lead to kidney infection and kidney damage.

Kidney stone prevention

Proper hydration is a key preventive measure. We recommend drinking enough water to pass about 2.6 quarts of urine each day. Increasing the amount of urine you pass helps flush the kidneys.

You can substitute ginger ale, lemon-lime soda, and fruit juice for water to help you increase your fluid intake. If the stones are related to low citrate levels, citrate juices could help prevent the formation of stones.

Eating oxalate-rich foods in moderation and reducing your intake of salt and animal proteins can also lower your risk of kidney stones.

Your doctor may prescribe medications to help prevent the formation of calcium and uric acid stones. If you’ve had a kidney stone or you’re at risk for a kidney stone, speak with your doctor and discuss the best methods of prevention.

How kidney stones are treated

Medication, Lithotripsy, Tunnel surgery (percutaneous nephrolithotomy), Ureteroscopy are few common ways to treat kidney stone but in homeopathy we use a constitutional treatment that can cure kidney stones without the use of any antibiotics and surgery, healing it naturally within a month, without any side effect.

Categories: diseases

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